The human senses (above all, that of hearing) do not possess one set of constant parameters, to be measured independently, one at a time. It is even questionable whether the various 'senses' are to be regarded as separate, independent detectors. The human organism is one integrated whole, stimulated into response by physical signals; it is not to be thought of as a box, carrying various independent pairs of terminals labeled 'ears', 'eyes', 'nose', et cetera.
Consider the eighth category, which deals with stones. Wilkins divides them into the following classifications: ordinary (flint, gravel, slate); intermediate (marble, amber, coral); precious (pearl, opal); transparent (amethyst, sapphire); and insoluble (coal, clay, and arsenic). The ninth category is almost as alarming as the eighth. It reveals that metals can be imperfect (vermilion, quicksilver); artificial (bronze, brass); recremental (filings, rust); and natural (gold, tin, copper). The whale appears in the sixteenth category: it is a viviparous, oblong fish. These ambiguities, redundances, and deficiencies recall those attributed by Dr. Franz Kuhn to a certain Chinese encyclopedia entitled Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge. On those remote pages it is written that animals are divided into (a) those that belong to the Emperor, (b) embalmed ones, (c) those that are trained, (d) suckling pigs, (e) mermaids, (f) fabulous ones, (g) stray dogs, (h) those that are included in this classification, (i) those that tremble as if they were mad, (j) innumerable ones, (k) those drawn with a very fine camel's hair brush, (l) others, (m) those that have just broken a flower vase, (n) those that resemble flies from a distance.
11 Now everything that changes place is moved either by itself or by something else. In as many of these as are moved by themselves, it is obvious that the moved and mover are together, since the first mover is present in them, so that nothing is in-between. But as many as are moved by other things must come about in four ways, for there are four kinds of change of place by means of something else: pulling, pushing, carrying, and whirling. For all motions with respect to place lead back to these; for pushing on is a kind of pushing, in 20 which that which moves something away from itself pushes while following along, whereas pushing off is one in which it does not follow along when it has moved something, and 243b throwing is one in which it makes the motion away from itself more violent than the change of place the thing has by nature, and the thing is carried along for just so long as this motion prevails. Again, tearing apart and pressing together pare pushing off and pulling: tearing apart is pushing off (since it is a pushing off either away from the mover itself or away from something else), and pressing together is pulling (since it is a pulling either toward the mover itself or toward something else). And it is the same as well with as many kinds as there are of these, such as smoothing down and combing, for the former is a pressing together and the latter a tearing apart. And it is similar with the other combinings and separatings—for they 10 will all be tearings apart and pressings together—except for those in a coming into being or a destruction. At the same time, it is clear that combining and separating are not a distinct class of motion, since all of them are divided up into some of those mentioned. Further, inhaling is pulling and exhaling pushing. And it is similar with spitting and as many other motions as there are throughout the body of secretion or absorption, for some are pulling and others pushing away. And it is necessary that the other changes of place also be led back, since they all fall into these four kinds.
Encyclopedia. This word signifies chain of knowledge ; it is composed of the Greek preposition ἐν , in , and the nouns κύκλος , circle , and παιδεία , knowledge .
Indeed, the purpose of an encyclopedia is to collect knowledge disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to the centuries to come; and so that our offspring, becoming better instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous and happy, and that we should not die without having rendered a service to the human race.
ENCYCLOPEDIE, f. n. (Philosophy). This word means the interrelation of all knowledge; it is made up of the Greek prefix en, in, and the nouns kyklos, circle, and paideia, instruction, science, knowledge. In truth, the aim of an encyclopedia is to collect all the knowledge scattered over the earth, to present its general outlines and structure to the men with whom we live, and to transmit this to those who will come after us, so that the work of past centuries may be useful to the following centuries, that our children, by becoming more educated, may at the same time become more virtuous and happier, and that we may not die without having deserved well of the human race. . . .
Advertisers, politicians, and anyone else who wants your money or support are very interested in programming you with certain distinctions over others and understanding the distinctions you see the world through so that they can take advantage of them. What are you more likely to buy for breakfast: a slice of chocolate cake or a "chocolate-chip muffin"? Calling a round piece of high-fat chocolate cake a "muffin" takes advantage of the distinctions you have around breakfast food and increases sales. My local cafe has just come out with scone-shaped brownies! Of course, not many people would eat brownies for breakfast, but scones ... ?!